Part of the
Centre for
Engineering Education
TU DelftTU EindhovenUniversity of TwenteWageningen University
Centre for
Engineering Education


+31(0)6 48 27 55 61


Project introduction and background information

There has been considerable interest among researchers in the instructional use of concept maps and collaboration scripts. Some studies focus on students' collaboration on concept mapping tasks, others focus on scripts to structure learning tasks and guide interactions. Little is known about scripted collaborative concept mapping.

The main experimental study (Marée, van Bruggen, & Jochems, 2013) as part of the PhD study (Marée, 2013) reports a study in which we examine the effects of self-regulated science learning through scripting students' argumentative interactions during collaborative "multimedia-enriched skeleton concept mapping" on meaningful science learning and retention. Each concept in the enriched skeleton concept map (ESCoM) contained annotated multimedia-rich content (pictures, text, animations or video clips) that elaborated on the concept, and an embedded collaboration script to guide students' interaction.

Objective and expected outcomes

The study was performed in a Biomolecules course of the Bachelor of Applied Science program. First-year students were randomly assigned to an experimental group of 44 students and a control group of 49 students. In the experimental group, students worked together in dyads on an ESCoM, guided by embedded collaboration scripts.

Little is known about scripted collaborative concept mapping.

Results and learnings

The results show that students and teachers were able to handle the ESCoM and appreciated them. Moreover, concept maps appeared to be scored reliable and validly.

The retention test taken one month after the regular course exam showed the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group. Scripted collaborative multimedia ESCoM mapping resulted in meaningful understanding and retention of the conceptual structure of the domain, the concepts, and their relations. Not only was scripted collaborative multimedia ESCoM mapping more effective than the traditional teaching approach, it was also more efficient in requiring far less teacher guidance. Moreover, the main findings and conclusions indicate that the ESCoM method elicits productive student activity and increases interactivity among students.

Practical outcomes

Marée, T. J. (2013). Scripted collaborative enriched skeleton concept mapping to foster meaningful learning. Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology. 

Marée, T. J., van Bruggen, J. M., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2013). Effective self-regulated science learning through multimedia-enriched skeleton concept maps. Research in Science & Technological Education, 16-30.